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The Civil Service

        

 CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATION  
Union Public Service Commission    

         The Civil Service system is the backbone of Indian Government machinery constitutes the union of states and its all departments. It is an administrative bridge between the government and the people. The Union Public Service Commission recruits persons who are the country's best well-educated, intellectual, moral and with all other competencies for the most significant jobs of government administrations and all other higher authorities in various fields. These Civil Servants are selected through The Civil Service Exam. One of the most challenging and the proudest competitive exams in India. The prestige, power, charm, and responsibility that comes along with top Services like IAS, IPS, IFS, etc. Anyone can join in these Civil Services with a definite reason. Are you really wishing to change the Society and poor helpless people's lives?  Are you eager to enforce Law and Order against every injustice? Then, it is pleasure my comrades just join your hands in these esteemed services to become a part of our national development.     Jai Hind!

The Competitive Examination shall comprise of three successive stages which are  Preliminary Exam, Main Exam, and Interview. The whole process will take around a year. An Indian citizen must have attained the age of 21 years and holding a degree can appear.

Stage I: PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION

The Examination shall comprise of two compulsory papers will be objective type and the two hours duration. It's a screening exam.

Paper I: General Studies, 200 Marks.
Paper II: Civil Service Aptitude Test, 200 Marks.
                                                                                     
Stage II: MAIN EXAMINATION

The written examination will consist of the following papers; Three hours duration of each.

*Qualifying Papers, English (300 Marks) & Language ~ தமிழ் (300 Marks).

Paper I, Essays, 250 Marks.

Paper II, General Studies I, 250 Marks.
(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Paper III, General Studies II, 250 Marks.
(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)

Paper IV, General Studies III, 250 Marks.
(Economic Development, Technology, Bio-diversity, Environment and Security)

Paper V, General Studies IV, 250 Marks.
(Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)

Paper VI & VII, Optional Subject, Paper I & II, 250 & 250 Marks.
(Literature, History, Political Science, Public Administration, Geography, Sociology, etc. )

Sub Total (Written test), 1750 Marks.

Final Stage: PERSONALITY TEST, 275 Marks.

GRAND TOTAL, 2025 MARKS.

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DEDICATION, PERSEVERANCE, AND HARD WORK! 
ARE KEY TO SUCCESS!




Thirukkural




திருக்குறள்

View 1330 Thirukkural
தமிழில் உள்ள நூல்களிலேயே சிறப்பிடம் பெற்ற நூல் திருக்குறள். இது ஐந்தாம் வேதம் என அறியப்படுகிறது.

"இறைவன் மனிதனுக்குச் சொன்னது கீதை
மனிதன் இறைவனுக்குச் சொன்னது திருவாசகம்
மனிதன் மனிதனுக்குச் சொன்னது திருக்குறள்".


இது அடிப்படையில் ஒரு வாழ்வியல் நூல். மனித வாழ்வின் முக்கிய அங்கங் களாகிய அறம் அல்லது தர்மம், பொருள், இன்பம் அல்லது காமம் ஆகியவற்றைப் பற்றி விளக்கும் நூல்.



இந்நூலை இயற்றியவர் திருவள்ளுவர். இவருடைய இயற்பெயர் என்ன என்பதுவும் மேற்கொண்ட விபரங்களும் சரிவரத்தெரியவில்லை. இவரைப்பற்றிச் செவிவழிமரபாகச் சில செய்திகள் விளங்குகின்றன. ஆனால் அறுதியான வரலாறு கிடையாது. அந்தச் செய்திகளின் வாயிலாகப்பெறும் தகவல்களின்படி, இவர் வள்ளுவ மரபைச்சேர்ந்தவர் என்றும், மயிலாப்பூரில் வசித்தவர் என்றும் தெரிகிறது; இவருடைய மனைவியார் வாசுகி அம்மையார்.கற்பியலுக்கு மிகச்சிறந்த இலக்கணமாக விளங்கியவர். வள்ளுவர் தாம் எழுதிய முப்பால் நூலை தமிழ்ச்சங்கத்தில் அரங்கேற்றம் செய்ய மிகவும் சிரமப்பட்டதாகவும், முடிவில் ஒளவையாரின் துணையோடு அரங்கேற்றியதாகவும் அச்செய்திகள் வாயிலாக அறிகிறோம்.


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Create Your Own Operating System



Operating system
An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that run on computers and manages the computer hardware and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software. Examples Windows, Linux, Macintosh. 

India's Bharat Operating System Solutions


BOSS (Bharat Operating System Solutions) is a GNU/Linux distribution developed by C-DAC, Chennai in order to benefit the usage of Free/Open Source Software throughout India.

Knowledge Required
The following are some of the important area where you should be comfortable. It is not necessary to know in and out of everything.
• C and Assembly (Yes – Assembly knowledge is must)
• Data structures (Array, Linked List, Binary Tree, Hash…)
• Compiler, Linker, Object Files, Executable Files
• Processor Modes – Real and Protected
• Knowledge in BIOS, Interrupt, ISR, DMA, IO etc
• Basic Hardware Knowledge
• OS Concepts

Writing an OS is not an easy task.

No I didn’t say that; although developing OS is not an easy task, it is not an impossible one. OSdevelopment may take more than what you estimate however it is also possible to complete a working kernel within short frame of time (6 months).If you have knowledge about the above thing then it will take just a year to complete an OS project. :)

Goal
OS is composed of many components or modules. Writing all the modules from scratch will take lot of time. And also all modules are not required for all OSes. So decide what kind of OS you want to write. GUI and Shell are some example for programs which are not needed for an OS. Memory Management, Process Management and Scheduler are the important things; around which you may set your goals.

Design is the first task to be done for any task
Spend some time to finalize your kernel design before starting coding. Set all modules’s functions, data structure and how they are going to interact/communicate with other modules before start coding.
Kernel is the most important part in OS design.

Set Environment
What makes OS development harder?
– The answer is development/debugging environment.
Before start coding but after design set your development environment well.
GCC and NASM/FASM is compiler/assembler used by most hobby OS developers. Try to learn the options. Supported by these compilers and assemblers.
You should also learn how to link Assembly and C source code.
Also you may need to learn about MakeFile and linker scripts.
Linux as the host machine for OS development because Linux has lot of open source tools related to kernel development.

Debugging
To test and debug your kernel, you need either a real machine or a virtual machine (Virtual PC, VMWARE,Bochs, QEmu). WinImage, FileDisk are some tools help to create image files for virtual machines.

Management
If you are creating a kernel you should take care of time management also
otherwise you can’t complete the project. The classic technique of time management is set timeframe for each activity and to complete it within the timeframe. Here are some macro level milestones. (The percentages are of total time within which the objectives should complete.)

• Design (25%) (Reading – 15%, Design – 10%)
• Tools and environment Setup (5%)
• Grub and Hello World Kernel (15%)
• Create Real Kernel (30%)
• Debugging (20%)

Reading
OS Development Forums and Basic Fundamental Books...


OSDEV and OSDEVER





Good luck.. ;)